Starting in the late nineteenth century, Somalia began to be colonized by Europe. Britain, France, Italy, Egypt and Ethiopia colonized Somalia. Egypt first took over the coast in 1875. Britain wanted to take over the coast of Somalia, in order to guard the Suez Canal. Britain negotiated with local tribe leaders to gain more land. Five years after Egypt’s colonization, Britain created the British Somaliland (Somalia History). Britain also wanted most of the northern coast to gain resources such as mutton and livestock. The French on the other hand originally wished for a part of Egypt but were expelled by the British. There they had wanted a coal station on the red sea to strengthen links with China. Because they couldn’t receive the part of Egypt, they took control of a section of Somalia. Italy was the most inexperienced country out of the Europeans. They only wished not to deal with any other countries while conquering a country.
Learning Somalia Encyclopedia For Students
Not only did Ethiopia gain power over Somalia, but also they became a huge threat over other European countries. This was a huge deal during the period of colonization because Europe had control over almost all of Africa except for Ethiopia. That shows how strong and brave the country of Ethiopia was, to not only hold independence, but also become a threat on the Europeans. A local leader, Emperor Menelik II of Ethiopia defended his colonies by competing with European countries for parts of Somalia that he claimed were Ethiopian. He was the first one to circulate colonies and go past traditional lines to colonize the country. Ethiopia ended up receiving a small division of the land they competed for (Somalia: History and Politics). Italy and Britain, the two major countries colonizing Somalia into British Somaliland and Somalia Italiana had separate uses for their power. Italy was the only country to have a legitimate plan for their colonization (Chaplin). Italy put all the settlers and the commercial colonizers in one area in hope of not disturbing the natives.
They had very large sugar, citrus and banana plantations in their occupied area that served as their major exports from the country. The natives were treated very fairly under the Italians at the start because the Italians were trying not to disturb the colonies and were able to keep local leaders. Later though, Italians removed any local authority of the natives and they were all forced to adjust to Italian law. Britain separately, let the natives have control over local cases but in return they let Ethiopia have the traditional grazing lands of the natives (Middleton). The clan leader of Darod, Sayyid Muhammad Abdulla Hassan led a rebellion against the British the revolt kept British troops occupied with fighting and eventually the British deserted the country’s inland. He was known as a national hero for this amazing accomplishment. After Sayyid’s death and British air force strikes against the native armies, the army was destroyed and Britain took complete control again (Somalia History).
The native Somali people were also very affected by Britain’s commercializing of meat production. It affected farmers and pastures greatly by changing everything in their life from their economical and political culture to their connection with the environment (Somalia: History and Politics). The people of Somalia were not treated fairly and not given respect for their individual culture during the period of colonization. The Europeans were only interested in the resources gained for their sake like livestock, sugar, bananas, and citrus. Independence wasn’t created until all of Somalia had been greatly affected by the European colonization. Chaplin, Helen, Metz. Somalia: A Country Study. N.p.: Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Date, 1993. This book gave me a lot of great information on how Somalia was colonized and what countries colonized it. “Somalia. Africa.” An Encyclopedia for Students. Ed. John Middleton. Vol. 4. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002. 40-46. From this source I got information on Britain and Italy’s specific use of their power on the native people. I also found what drove the countries to colonize Somalia. “Somalia History.” World Geography. ABC-CLIO. Apr. 2009 . From this source I learned how territory was gained by the Europeans.
Also I learned about the rebellions and Italian land. Somalia:History and Politics. Mar. 2005. 3 May 2009 . In this website I got some key facts about Somalia’s population and resources. I also found how colonization effected Somalia. “Somali Students Page.” Somali Students Page: Whats Going On. 1998. 3 May 2009 . At this website I got information on the rebellion of the natives against the colonizers and the effect it had on the people.