Is Somalia A Quagmire With No Solutions? Ask most Americans what country is the biggest global headache, and the answer you are most likely to receive is Afghanistan. Somalia is a country that has not had a unified government since 1991 and barring some remarkable turnaround or large intervention is not likely to have one anytime soon. In 1991, the totalitarian dictator General Mohamed Siad Barre was ousted by allied forces from the north and south, but since then numerous political groups and clans have been fighting each other over control of parcels of land. The disastrous results for the people of Somalia have been predictable. 1/day. Famine is not unknown to the Somali people, with 300,000 dying in 1992 and a famine occurring in southern Somalia as recently as this year. Just as predictable as the dire effects of a 22-year collapse of government on the Somali people is the rise of extremist and criminal groups.
The Real Problem In Somalia
They use scent marking for communication. Urine spraying occurs on trees and bushes for identification of territories and other rhinos. Black rhinoceros were once found in abundance in Western Africa in countries like Sudan and Nigeria and throughout the Sub-Saharan Africa apart from the Congo basin. Currently they are restricted to the nature reserves that are protected and they do not exist in countries or places where they once existed. They do not have strict territories and their territories overlap with other rhinoceros territories. Black rhinoceros are solitary but rarely form a group. Mother and female calves along with other females live together as a family. Their habitat / territory range changes with season and the availability of food and water. The habitat are dense when food is in plenty and less dense when food is not readily available. They usually live in areas within 25 km of food and water resources. They go to regular areas to take rest and these places are called “houses”.
The black rhinoceros are herbivores and they feed on plants that have lots of leaves, branches, young shoots, thorny bushes, woody bushes and fruits. They use their pointed lips to strip off the leaves from branches of trees and plants. They look (called browsers as they are not grazers) for food early in the mornings (dawn) and late in the evenings (dusk) and rest during the day when it is hot. They wallow in mud during the day, which helps cool their body and to get rid of parasites. The black rhinoceros adults come together only during the mating period. The breeding pair stays together from a few days to weeks. The black rhinoceros usually gives birth during the end of the rainy season. The gestation (pregnancy) period is 15 to 16 months (419 to 478 days) and a calf weighs between 35 to 50 kg at birth. They follow their mother outside into the wild after 3 days and weaning occurs when the calves are 2 months old. Mother and calf stay together for 2 to 3 years.
Females mature when they are 5 to 7 years old and males mature when they are 7 to 8 years old after which they are ready for reproduction. The black rhinoceros lives between 30 to 35 years in the wild and between 45 to 50 years in captivity. Protecting the black rhinoceros will help to produce large areas of land for conservation which will in turn benefit other species like the elephants. The Europeans, who settled in Africa during the early periods of the twentieth century, were initially responsible for the decline of the black rhinoceros population. They used to kill five or six rhinos a day for food and for fun. Some considered them as unwanted animals and wanted them completely destroyed at any cost. The next reason is the changes in habitat. Rhinoceros conservancies that were owned privately were invaded by landless people in countries like Zimbabwe thereby reducing safe habitat and increasing poaching and trapping. Illegal wildlife trade was and still is another threat where the horns of the rhinoceros are traded. This is widely common in countries like Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
Conservation works were affected in some African countries like Angola, Rwanda, Somalia and Sudan due to wars and political issues. This led to an increase in poaching which was a result of poverty. Conservation efforts towards black rhinoceros are a bit satisfactory, but to bring the black rhinoceros population up to even a fraction of the original population, a huge amount of work needs to be done. WWF started an international program in 1961 to save wildlife in which black rhinoceros were rescued. The program worked towards stopping poaching and illegal wildlife trade and to improve law enforcement. This helped the increase in the number of rhinoceros population. Translocation programs were carried out by BRREP in partnership with WWF South Africa, and other conservationists. 19 black rhinoceros were transported by helicopter to a new area, which reduced the pressure on the existing wildlife reserves and also helped to spread the rhinoceros population to a wider area. This program was called the Flying Rhinoceros.